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Agricultural production in Vietnam


The agricultural sector is an important part of the Vietnamese economy. This is supported by the following factors:

  • Much of the land is arable land (approx. 22%)

  • The growing season is 12 months what  allows more than one harvest annually

  • High availability of water

  • The great historical importance of the agricultural sector in the country


The overwhelming number of producers from household or small businesses with a few hectares of production area. This means considerable restrictions in productivity and quality assurance, because "economies of scale" often cannot be achieved. The small company sizes also mean that there is hardly any capital available for modernizing production processes. Many cultivation and processing activities are therefore carried out manually or with outdated technology. So there is great potential here for efficiency gains, which is slowly being leveraged through the professionalization of the sector, e.g. through the use of cooperatives.

Although a very large number of agricultural goods are produced in Vietnam as a whole, production is concentrated on a smaller number of products, with rice, corn, coffee and pork dominating.

Rice is the most important crop in Vietnam. It occupies about 20% of the country's total arable land. Vietnam is now one of the most important rice exporters in the world. Production is concentrated on the deltas of the Red River in northern Vietnam and the Mekong in the south of the country.

These two river deltas are the most important agricultural production areas in Vietnam. In addition to rice, bananas, coconuts and citrus fruits are also grown in these areas. Sugar cane, cassava, nuts and corn are grown in different regions of the country; and a great deal of coffee is produced in the highlands.

In terms of animal husbandry, pork dominates, which makes up around ¾ of the total meat production. Despite the historically fragmented production system, the country is a net exporter of pork. On the other hand, it is a small producer of other meat and is dependent on imports here. Vietnamese seafood products, which are an important source of protein in addition to meat, are produced and exported in large quantities.

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